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On the basis of the symptoms described buy cheapest altace and altace blood pressure young adults, plague order generic altace on-line hypertension 24 hour urine test, small­ pox order generic altace online artaria string quartet, measles, typhus, or even syphilis and ergotism have been proposed as likely candidates. Whatever the disease was it seems to have destroyed the Greek peo­ ple’s ability to host it by killing or immunizing them. Whereupon it disappeared, leaving in its wake the wreckage of Athenian dreams of hegemony, which has been called a ‘turning point’ in the history of Western civilization. Roman conquest knitted together much of the known world and most of its deadly pathogens by successively embracing Macedonia and Greece (146 bc), Seleucid Asia (64 bc), and finally Egypt (30 bc). The first widespread epidemic, the so-called Antonine plague, may have killed from a quarter to a third of the pop­ ulations in infected areas between ad 165 and 180, whereas a second, 26 The Cam bridge Illustrated H istory of M edicine which struck between 211 and 266, scourged both Rome and the countryside. In short, after a d 200 epidemics and barbarians joined in first battering and ulti­ mately bringing down the Roman Empire. A shrinking world also resulted in wider and wider pools of diseases shared by more and more people in South Asia, the Middle East, and East Asia; that is, centres from which diseases rotated out­ wards to draw other Old World populations into their vortices. Before ad 552, the Japanese seem to have escaped the epidemic diseases that had long scourged mainland populations. In that year, however, Buddhist missionaries from Korea visited the Japanese court, and shortly after many Japanese died from what may have been smallpox. In 585 after a new, non-immune generation had arisen in Japan there was another outbreak of disease that seems clearly to have been smallpox or measles. The seventh century, however, was brought abruptly to an An approximate chronology of end with the beginning of Japan’s ‘age of plagues’ (700-1050). During the eighth the Black death as it spread century, the country was rocked with thirty-four epidemics; in the ninth century, across Europe from Asia in the middle of the fourteenth it suffered through thirty-five; in the tenth century, twenty-six; and in the eleventh century. All continued to pound Japan during the period 1050-1260 but not with the same intensity, and the population finally began to grow after stagnating for centuries. Much of the reason for this renewed growth may be found in the fact that, by about 1250, smallpox and measles had come to be regarded as child­ hood diseases. Viewed from the present day, such a transformation of plagues into childhood illnesses stands out as a large milestone in the epidemiological history of humankind. In the case of the Japanese, it meant that almost all of the adults had already suffered illnesses that they could not get again. But it also meant that they were producing enough non-immune children to hold onto the illnesses so that they dwelled generation after generation in the bodies of the young and did not escape to return at a later date as devastating plagues. Epidemic diseases that became endemic diseases were not only substantially less disruptive of political, social, and economic life, they were also less wasteful of human life because many epidemic diseases tend to affect the young less severely than they do adults. Yet, if larger populations had the effect of taming many of the epidemic dis­ eases, such populations remained exposed to other serious infections. These were diseases against which its members were immunologically defenceless because they were diseases of animals, not usually of humans. One such illness is bubonic plague, which has assaulted humans with extreme ferocity whenever and wher­ ever populations have accidentally been caught in a crossfire of disease transmis­ sion involving rats, fleas, and the plague bacillus. As had happened so often in the past, a killer disease (in this case, plague) made its appearance when populations were enjoying a substantial period of growth, and in Europe the next few centuries witnessed demographic stagnation with populations reasserting themselves at different rates. After the Great Plague of London in 1665, for example, the disease withdrew from northwestern Europe but not the Mediterranean. Spain, which had suffered cruelly from epidemics in 1596-1602 and 1648-52, also endured another 9 years of plague from 1677 to 1685. The timing of these epidemics seems especially significant when one recalls the rise in English fortunes during this period and the decline of those of Spain. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, however, not even plague was able to stop the inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula from engineering the beginning of the European expansion. The Portuguese followed up the capture of Ceuta in 1415 (the year their queen, Philippa, died of plague) with the voyages of trade and exploration that would ultimately take them into the Indian Ocean and on to the threshold of a huge East Indies empire. Meanwhile the Spaniards were also active in waters off the African coast as they conquered the Canary Islands. There, the native resistance of the Guanches, although initially stiff, crumbled in the face of diseases that eventually annihilated them. Sugar plantations were operated by 28 The Cam bridge Illustrated H istory of M edicine the cause of plague the rodent disease that produces plague in humans is also page 78). Around 1300 it began a rampage in Asia that Yersinia pestis (once called Pasturella pestis).

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They stirred the founding of institutions in the provinces 2.5 mg altace amex blood pressure chart spanish, where no genuinely medical hospitals had existed at all order altace with a visa blood pressure medication beginning with h. The Edinburgh Royal Infirmary was set up in 1729 altace 2.5 mg discount arteria umbilical unica pdf, followed by hospitals in Winchester and Bristol (1737), York (1740), Exeter (1741), Bath (1742), Northampton (1743), and some twenty oth­ ers. Traditional cathedral and corporation cities came first, industrial towns, such as Sheffield and Hull, fol­ lowed. Augmenting these general foundations, humanitarians also pumped money into specialist institutions for the sick. St Luke’s Hospital was opened in London in 1751, making it at that time the only large public lunatic asylum apart from Bethlem. Unlike Bethlem, criticized for its barbarity (see page 296), St Luke’s was launched to an optimistic fanfare, its physician, William Battie, asserting that, if handled with humanity, lunacy was no less curable than any other disease. By 1800, other great towns such as Manchester, Liverpool, and York had public lunatic asylums, philanthropically supported. Alongside lunatics, sufferers from venereal disease also became objects for charity surely a sign of a changing cli­ mate of opinion: the harsh religious judgement that such diseases were salutary punishment for vice was evidently on the wane, being supplanted by the Enlight­ enment view that relief of suffering was the duty of humanity. It was paralleled by another London charitable foundation, the Magdalene Hospital for Penitent Prostitutes (1759) less a medical hospital than a refuge where harlots wishing to go straight were taught a trade. In London, the earliest maternity hospitals were the British (1749), the City (1750), the General (1752), and the Westminster (1765). They also enabled unmarried mothers, mainly servant girls, to deliver their illegitimate babies with no questions asked. Unwanted children could be deposited there anonymously; they would be was undertaken in the eigh­ educated and taught a trade. The thwarted, however, by the appalling death rates of mothers and babies alike from most notable continental what would later be identified as bacterial infections. Nevertheless, they served as example, shown here, was Vienna’s Allgemeines sites where medical students could practise obstetric skills. Krankenhaus (general hospi­ General hospitals provided treatment, food, shelter, and opportunities for con­ tal) rebuilt by Emperor valescence. But, as with hospitals abroad, they restricted themselves to fairly minor expression of the drive complaints likely to respond to treatment, and they excluded infectious cases. London’s first fever hos­ the Vienna hospital sheltered pital (euphemistically called the House of Recovery) was opened in 1801. Six storeys high, it was founded in Philadelphia in 1751; some 20 years later the New York Hospital had twenty-eight cells to a was established. In Vienna, the hospital reforms carried through in the 1770s by Anton Stoerck led to clinical instruction on the wards. The success of the Edinburgh Medical School owed much to its links with the city’s infirmary. Professor John Rutherford inaugurated clinical lecturing there in the 1740s, and from 1750 a special clinical ward was set up, whose patients served as teaching material for professorial clin­ ical lectures. The stu­ dents go round with him every day, and mark down the state of each patient and the medicines prescribed. At certain times lectures are read upon these cases, in which all the progressive changes in the disease are traced and explained and the method of practice is accounted for. The leading London surgeon-anatomist, William Cheselden, started private surgical lectures in 1711; but in 1718 he moved his lectures to St Thomas’s, delivering four courses a year. Clinical instruction was set up, and students were encouraged to follow their teachers round the wards and into the operating theatre. The Philadelphian William Shippen attended London’s hospitals in 1759, and recorded in his journal, [4 August] saw Mr. Way surgeon to Guy’s hospital amputate a leg above the knee very dexterously 8 ligatures. Such accounts show that contemporaries believed that surgical treatment in hos­ pital was improving. Pupils became a more conspicuous presence in provincial hospitals, and stu­ dent training was essential to specialist institutions such as maternity hospitals.

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In the early 1960s altace 10 mg with mastercard prehypertension, for example order online altace blood pressure monitors at walmart, archaeologists discovered pieces of hemp fabric in a grave mound at a dig in the region known as Gordion that dates to altace 5mg line blood pressure levels of athletes the 8th bce. An even more recent and more fascinating discovery was made in the 1990s in the town of Beit Shemesh, near Jerusalem. The discovery consisted of the skeleton of a young woman who was about 14 years of age and had apparently died during childbirth. In terred with the body was a brown material in the abdominal region of the skeleton, whose composition was found to con sist of cannabis seeds, mixed with fruits and other dried seeds. Archaeologists believe that the mixture was used as an aid in childbirth, a custom that prevailed in the area well into the 19th century. The fnd raises questions as to the extent and the purposes for which cannabis might have been used in this early Middle Eastern culture. In spite of these recent fnds, most authorities seem to believe that cannabis came to the Middle East relatively later than it did to Central Asia, China, and India. More intriguing, perhaps, has been the dispute as to whether cannabis products are mentioned in the Bible, which would, of course, place their use many centuries and even millennia earlier. The basic problem is whether words used in the Old Testament actually refer to cannabis or to some other type of plant. In I Samuel, 14, for example, Saul places a restriction on his people, telling them that they should not eat until they took vengeance upon his enemies. His son Jonathan did not hear that command, however, and when the army reached a wooded area, he. Creighton points out that the Hebrew words for “honey comb” used here—yagarah hadebash—probably should be translated as a type of fower stalk similar to that of cannabis, and that the “brightened eyes” may have been Jonathan’s response to ingesting cannabis (Creighton 1903, 241; for an extended dis cussion of this point, also see Benet 1975). Other scholars take a more skeptical view of eforts to place the cannabis plant into biblical sources. One widely respected authority, for example, has criticized experts who have “tickled, teased, and twisted [Biblical texts] into surrendering secret references to marijuana that it never contained” (Abel 1982). Cannabis in Africa (and Beyond) The use of any form of cannabis on the African continent ap pears to have been a comparatively recent event. According to the best information now available, cannabis was probably in troduced to the continent by Muslim sea traders who brought the plant to the eastern coast of Africa in the frst century ce, after which it spread inland throughout most of southern Africa. Tere are a few scattered reports of ancient remnants of cannabis fnds such as a discovery of prehistoric pollen samples dating to about 2300 bce from the Kalahari Desert in Bo tswana, but these are rare, with most discoveries dating to only the frst century ce or much later (Merlin 2003, 315–316). More commonly, the archeological record appears to con frm that tribesmen practiced a communal use of cannabis by, for example, “throwing hemp plants on the burning coals of a fre and staging what might today be called a ‘breathe-in’” (Emboden 1972, 226, as cited in Spicer 2002). Whatever its ancient history, the church was formulated in its modern form in the 1930s during the rise of the Rafastari movement in Jamaica. Rafastari (also known as Rasta, but not as Rafastarianism) is a religious movement that consists almost entirely of Christian descendants of slaves brought to the West ern Hemisphere. They originally worshiped Haile Selassie I, emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974, as the reincarnation of Christ and God incarnate. Among the tenets of the church is a belief in the sacramental role of cannabis smoking as a way of communicating with God. One of the early leaders of the church, Louv Williams, said that the church was based on a new trinity consisting of “The Man, The Herb, and The Word” (“the herb” being cannabis) (Menelik 2009, 138). A defense for the fundamental principles of Rafastari and its basis in bibli cal teachings was laid out in a 1988 publication, Marijuana and the Bible, which contains dozens of specifc citations in the Bible that purportedly allude to the use of cannabis in religious ceremonies. The church’s fundamental teaching is that Herb (marijuana) is a Godly creation from the beginning of the world. It is known as the weed of wisdom, angel’s food, the tree of life and even the “Wicked Old Ganja Tree. Four years later, members of that group were arrested while unloading a very large shipment of marijuana from Jamaica, a shipment they said they intended to use in religious ceremonies. The question as to whether the use of marijuana was legal among the members of this religious denomination worked its way through the federal courts over a number of years. Members of Background and History 23 the Rafastari argued that their right to use marijuana in their religious ceremonies was protected by the U. Constitution’s “freedom of religion” clause, which prevents the government from interfering with the religious practices of individuals and denominations. In the end, the government’s argument won out in the highest court decisions on the Rafastari complaints, and the denomination’s right to use marijuana in its ceremonies is not permitted (United States v.

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Students will demonstrate the ability to order altace 5 mg free shipping hypertension benign 4011 use interpersonal communication skills to order altace 10mg without prescription heart attack jack enhance health and avoid or reduce health risks •Investigate effective communi •Demonstrate effective commun •Apply effective verbal and non •Model skills for communicating •Use skills for communicating cation skills to buy altace 5 mg blood pressure and caffeine enhance health ication skills to enhance health verbal communication skills to effectively with others to effectively with family, peers and •Choose refusal skills to avoid or •Model refusal and negotiation enhance health enhance health others to enhance health reduce health risks skills to avoid or reduce health •Demonstrate refusal and negoti •Apply refusal, negotiation and •Demonstrate refusal, negotiation •Choose how to ask for risks ation skills to avoid or reduce collaboration skills to enhance and collaboration skills to assistance to enhance the •Model how to ask for assistance health risks health and avoid or reduce enhance health and avoid or health of self to enhance the health of others •Demonstrate how to ask for health risks reduce health risks assistance to enhance the •Illustrate how to offer assistance •Demonstrate how to ask for and health of self and others to enhance the health of self offer assistance to enhance the and others health of self and others (demonstrate how a friend can seek professional assis tance for an eating disorder) Standard 5. Students will demonstrate the ability to use decision-making skills to enhance health •Name conditions that can help •Describe situations that can help •Identify circumstances that can •Determine barriers to healthy •Examine barriers that can hinder or hinder healthy decision or hinder healthy decision help or hinder healthy decision decision making healthy decision making making (list how wearing making making •Outline the value of applying a •Determine the value of applying safety equipment when •Recognize when health-related •Determine when health-related thoughtful decision-making a thoughtful decision-making skating or 4-wheeling can situations require a thoughtful situations require a thoughtful process to a health-related process in health-related assist with making a health decision-making process decision-making process situation situations enhancing decision) •Determine when independent or •Distinguish when independent •Assess when independent or •Justify when individual or col •Explain when health-related collaborative decision making or collaborative decision making collaborative decision making is laborative decision making is situations require a thoughtful process is appropriate (deter is appropriate (debate the appropriate appropriate decision-making process mine nutrition decisions that school food policy) •Propose alternative choices to •Generate alternatives to health •Explain when individual or adult can be made individually and •Predict the potential short-term health-related issues or prob related issues or problems supported decision making is those that require input from impact of each alternative on lems •Predict the potential short and appropriate (family meal others (what to purchase from self and others •Analyze the potential short and long-term impact of each alter planning) a vending machine vs. Students will demonstrate the ability to use goal-setting skills to enhance health •Examine personal health •Analyze the effectiveness of •Assess personal health prac •Evaluate personal health •Assess personal health prac behaviors (examine current personal health practices tices practices and overall health tices and overall health status physical activity behaviors •Select a goal to improve a per •Develop a goal to adopt, main •Formulate a plan to achieve a (assess a plan for achieving a (type, frequency, intensity, sonal health practice tain or improve a personal health goal that addresses healthy eating habits goal by etc. The majority of this state’s standards are written in generic language (not specific to individual health topics), so the healthy eating and physical activity scope and sequence models are combined. Healthy Eating—Standard 1: Standards are written in general terms, with random examples of how a benchmark might be applied for individual health content areas (example, nutrition, physical activity, alcohol and drug use, sexual health, stress, etc. Standards 2 through 8: Scores reflect that this state’s standards do an excellent job identifying the skills necessary to meet each standard and offer at least two specific applications of use of these skills for healthy eating topics; as with the content, there is no continuity or progression among these skill examples. Physical Activity—Standard 1: Consistent with the coverage of healthy eating topics, specific concepts of physical activity appear intermittently throughout the standards. Standards 2 through 8: Without exception, the sub-skills for each standard are comprehensively included and addressed; there are at least two specific examples of application of the skill relative to physical activity for each standard. Benchmarks for Standard 7 include mention of self-assessment; self-assessment resources are not available for any of the other standards. This state clearly has chosen to utilize the National health Education Standards as a framework and does an excellent job including the sub-skills through which one might demonstrate achievement of the standard. Unfortunately, the state has made a limited effort to apply these standards and benchmarks (skills) to specific health content areas. The burden is on teachers, schools and districts to identify resources, strategies and evaluation materials specific to health topics (in this case, healthy eating) to meet each standard. State of Louisiana Benchmarks for Healthy Eating and Physical Activity for Grades K–12 Grades K-4 Grades 5-8 Grades 9-12 Standard 1. Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention •Demonstrate personal health habits that promote optimal •Evaluate healthy and unhealthy lifestyles. Students will analyze the influence of family, peers, culture, media, technology and other factors on health behaviors •Explain how physical, social and emotional environ •Identify how media influences the selection of health •Describe the influence of family, peers, and community ments influence personal health information and products on the health of individuals •Explain how media influences the selection of health •Examine the effectiveness of health products and •Investigate how cultural diversity and economy enrich information, products, and services services. Students will demonstrate the ability to access valid information and products and services to enhance health •Identify characteristics of valid health information and •Locate valid health information using various sources •Evaluate the validity of health information, products, and health-promoting products and services;. Students will demonstrate the ability to use interpersonal communication skills to enhance health and avoid or reduce health risks •Demonstrate refusal skills to enhance health •Demonstrate refusal and conflict resolution skills to •Plan and demonstrate refusal, negotiation, and develop and maintain healthy relationships with peers, collaboration skills to avoid potentially harmful situations family and others in socially acceptable ways Standard 5. Students will demonstrate the ability to use decision-making skills to enhance health •Apply a decision-making process to address personal •Demonstrate positive decision-making and problem •Demonstrate the ability to use critical thinking when health issues and problems solving skills making decisions related to health needs and risks of young adults •Predict immediate and long-term impact of health decisions on the individual, family and community Standard 6. Students will demonstrate the ability to use goal-setting skills to enhance health •Establish personal health goals and track progress •Identify personal health needs and develop long-term •Identify personal goals for improving or maintaining toward its achievement goals for a healthy lifestyle lifelong personal health •Develop strategies and skills for attaining personal health •Formulate a plan and evaluate the progress for attaining goals. Students will demonstrate the ability to practice health-enhancing behaviors and avoid or reduce health risks •Identify personal health needs •Examine physical fitness assessments and their role •Describe the role of individual responsibility for •Demonstrate responsible personal health behaviors in developing a personal wellness program enhancing health by analyzing the short-term and long •Illustrate safety/injury prevention techniques related to term consequences of behaviors throughout the life span daily activities (safe, high-risk, and harmful behaviors) •Evaluate a personal health survey to determine strategies for health enhancement and risk reduction Standard 8. Students will demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family and community health •Recognize basic job functions of community and •Develop strategies to encourage and influence others in •Effectively communicate concerns and information about school health service providers making positive health choices. Benchmarks are written in very vague terms; there is only one benchmark that applies specifically to a concept of physical activity (benchmark for standard 7, grades 5-8). All other benchmarks are written in generic terms, with limited references to healthy eating or physical activity applications (specific references in only 5 benchmarks). State of Maryland Benchmarks for Healthy Eating and Physical Activity for Grades PreK–4 Grade PreK Grade K Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Standard 1. Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention A. Identify and define func relationship between between food and the relationship between -List the six major nutri nutrients tions of nutrients food and the senses senses food and health ents: water, fat, vita -Describe the six major nutrients -Describe how nutrients in -Recognize that foods Compare foods that -Define physical fitness mins, minerals, carbo and how the body uses them foods contribute to health have different tastes have different smells -Describe how foods keep hydrates and protein -Describe why the body needs -Investigate why the body such as sweet, sour, B. Food Production the body healthy by -Name a food source for water needs calcium bitter and salty 1. Explain the relationship among food intake, physical minerals relationship between from different sources illness between personal fit activity and weight manage E. Demonstrate the rela -Tell why the body animal Activity Guidelines lifestyle -Define healthy weight tionship among food needs food C. Recognize that foods are -Discuss the importance -Discuss factors that affect a intake, physical activity 1. Define proper eating categorized into groups physical fitness and person’s weight such as age, and weight management manners -Recognize the My what it means to each gender, height, family, society, -Define calorie -Demonstrate proper eat Pyramid as an outline individual activity level and illness -Explain how caloric intake ing manners such as for healthy eating F.

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